Synopsis: Streaming = Sistem Pengasingan Kelas

Bagaimanakah murid-murid patut dikelompokkan ke dalam kelas masing-masing?

= How should students be grouped into classes?

Sepanjang bulan Mac, kami telah menerokai persoalan ini melalui (a) perbincangan tentang perubahan di Malaysia serta amalan dan kajian di negara lain dalam post Pengenalan, (b) petikan komen daripada pembaca-pembaca dalam post Apa Kata, dan (c) temu bual bersama Danial Rahman, seorang profesional dalam bidang teknologi pendidikan yang pernah bekerja di Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, dalam post Q&A. Minggu ini, kami menghuraikan perbincangan tentang ‘streaming’ ini.

= Throughout March, we have explored this question in (a) a discussion of changes in Malaysia as well as practices and studies in other countries, in our Pengenalan post, (b) a selection of comments from our readers in our Apa Kata post, and (c) an interview with Danial Rahman, an ed tech professional who used to work in the Ministry of Education, in our Q&A post. This week, we summarise this discussion about streaming.


1. Secara umumnya, pembaca kami menyokong keputusan Kementarian untuk menamatkan dasar ‘streaming’, iaitu pengasingan murid ke dalam kelas mengikut keputusan peperiksaan.
= On the whole, our readers support the Ministry’s decision to abolish streaming, or grouping pupils into classes based on their exam results.

Saya percaya terdapat pelbagai kelebihan untuk memberhentikan pengasingan kelas, dan saya menyokong perubahan ini. Sebagai konteks, Finland, negara yang mempunyai salah satu sistem pendidikan terbaik dunia, telah lama berhenti mengasingkan pelajar.

—Danial Rahman, apabila beliau ditemubual dalam Q&A kami

In the bigger picture, I personally think that this is the right decision on the part of the MOE. As a former secondary school teacher for the MOE, and brother of a current student of the public education system, I’ve seen firsthand how our streaming policies have severely disadvantaged many students.

—Soon Seng, commenting on the Pengenalan post (on dialogpendidikan.com)

2. Pengasingan kelas mengikut keputusan peperiksaan mewujudkan persaingan dan mengehadkan peluang pelajar untuk bergaul dengan mereka yang mempunyai kebolehan dan latar belakang yang berlainan.
= Streaming classes according to test results creates competition and limits opportunities for students to interact with those who have different abilities or backgrounds.

… sekiranya kita mengasingkan pelajar, perbezaan di antara mereka akan diperbesarkan – mewujudkan persepsi bahawa ada pelajar yang lebih ‘pandai’ daripada yang lain … Ini membawa kepada persaingan yang tidak diperlukan. Ia juga menyebabkan pelajar merasakan diri mereka serba berkurangan dan ini tidak bagus untuk harga diri mereka. Pengasingan dalam konteks ini juga memperkukuhkan obsesi kita dengan peperiksaan. Pelajar (dan juga ibu bapa) akan lebih tertekan memastikan markah tertinggi diperolehi agar dapat memasuki kelas ‘budak-budak pandai’.

—Danial Rahman, dalam Q&A

… besides student motivation and outcomes, we need to also weigh the social implications of trying to overly homogenize classes. ‘Birds of a feather flock together’ as they say, and it’s quite natural in life to seek out people who are similar to us. But being classmates in school provides opportunities for students to make friends with a more diverse range of people. This is especially true in Malaysia where perpaduan is a very important goal of public education — ideally lah.

—Ngee Derk, on the Pengenalan (Facebook)

3. ‘Streaming’ juga memerangkap pelajar dalam tatatingkat di mana pelajar di ‘bawah’ menghadapi halangan untuk memajukan diri.
= Streaming traps students into a hierarchy in which it is very difficult for those at the ‘bottom’ to progress.

Ada pro dan kontra sistem streaming. Kontranya ialah murid menjadi kurang bermotivasi apabila dikelaskan di kelas ‘belakang’.

—Maryam Kamal, memberi komen pada post Pengenalan (di Facebook)

A colleague and I once asked a senior teacher in our school if there had ever been a case of an illiterate student from the “last class” who eventually learned how to read and eventually progressed to tertiary education. She couldn’t recall that ever happening … That just makes me think that the streaming system is not a liberating structure in which students are getting the support they need at their level of ability, but instead, a structure which traps them in a vicious self-fulfilling prophecy of their ability.

—Soon Seng, on the Pengenalan (dialogpendidikan.com)

4. Penataman ‘streaming’ juga memudahkan pengasuhan pelajar untuk menjadi dewasa yang lebih seimbang.
= Removing streaming also supports the development of students into well-rounded adults.

Pembatalan sistem ‘streaming’ perlu selari dengan pemerkasaan warga pendidik dalam membentuk pelajar yang lebih ’rounded’. Saya juga percaya dasar ini perlu selari dengan sistem TVET yang sedang dirombak juga.

—Umar, pada Pengenalan (dialogpendidikan.com)

Perhaps, the main flaw [of the streaming system] was that, in my experience, the system tended, generally, to produce one-dimensional adults – very good at what they did, earning sizeable incomes, but not much else. They mixed mainly with like-minded people, read very little else besides their ‘speciality’, and, sadly, sometimes smack of opinionated narrow-mindedness.

—Anonymous, on the Pengenalan (dialogpendidikan.com)

5. Walau bagaimanapun, pembatalan sistem ‘streaming’ mewujudkan cabaran untuk guru yang perlu mengajar murid-murid pada pelbagai tahap persediaan akademik di dalam bilik darjah yang sama.
= However, abolishing streaming creates challenges for teachers, who have to teach students with many different levels of academic preparation in a single class.

Kontra apabila tiada sistem streaming ialah guru mengalami kesukaran apabila mengajar murid berbagai tahap penguasaan dalam satu kelas.

—Maryam Kamal, pada Pengenalan (Facebook)

So, whilst grouping and streaming based on exam results, might be very good (and convenient) for teachers, it is far from so for students. … Gradual implementation of mixed-ability classes would probably represent a better approach, especially since it is doubtful that we currently have sufficient teachers who are trained in effectively teaching in mixed-ability classes.

—Anonymous, on the Pengenalan (dialogpendidikan.com)

6. Namun, sistem ‘streaming’ juga mewujudkan cabaran untuk guru yang ingin mengasuh murid di kelas ‘belakang’, kerana sistem ini mempengaruhi persepsi dan motivasi guru dan murid sekaligus.
= That said, streaming also creates challenges for teachers in nurturing students in the ‘back classes’, because it influences the mindsets and motivations of teachers and students alike.

… While streaming might supposedly help teachers cater to the needs of their students more effectively (because lessons can be easily planned for the level of the students), I don’t think that this actually plays out in practice in most schools in Malaysia. In my experience, one teaching approach that I observed as common for “last classes” was for teachers to conduct lessons in which students would just copy down notes the entire lesson. … It resulted in full, accurately filled in exercise books, but often with students not comprehending a single thing, often due to a lack of back literacy skills.

… as a teacher I remember how it was common for me to observe classes that were the lowest ranked to not have teachers enter class, for a myriad of reasons. A common reason was that the class was too challenging to manage because they’re “last class kids” and they don’t behave- so teachers were often so demotivated that they would sometimes just skip entering the class. …

Please note that I in no way intend to place full blame teachers for these behaviours. I personally felt very similar feelings described above and had to intentionally fight to not succumb to them. The point I’m trying to suggest is that simply by virtue of the streaming system- it automatically psychologically embeds a belief system of how to look at and classify children- which teachers need to invest additional personal motivation and cognitive load to break free of.

—Soon Seng, on the Pengenalan (dialogpendidikan.com)

7. Moga-moga, kesediaan guru serta sokongan semua pemegang taruh terhadap dasar tanpa ‘streaming’ ini dapat dibina secara beransur-ansur.
= Hopefully, teachers’ preparedness as well as stakeholder support for this no-streaming policy will be built over time.

Memulakan sesuatu seperti ini tidaklah mudah. … Ia juga akan memerlukan cikgu dilatih semula dan dilengkapi kemahiran baru agar mereka dapat melihat tugasan mereka secara berbeza, dan untuk menukar kerangka pemikiran ibu bapa agar lebih menerima pendekatan pendidikan yang tidak berasaskan kepada peperiksaan semata-mata. Perubahan dasar mengambil masa.

—Danial Rahman, dalam Q&A

… we need to be quite careful about expecting all our schools to do it overnight. School leaders and teachers need to be given the space to meet their students’ short term needs while taking meaningful and carefully-considered steps towards a long term vision.

—Ngee Derk, on the Pengenalan (Facebook)

8. Walaupun pihak Kementerian tidak lagi membenarkan ‘streaming’, masih terdapat pengasingan mengikut keputusan peperiksaan secara tidak langsung kerana sekolah ternama biasanya menarik pelajar yang berkeputusan cemerlang.
= Even though the government no longer allows schools to group students into classes using exam results, there is still some indirect grouping by exam results because higher-scoring students often choose more prestigious schools.

Actually another form of ‘streaming’ can be said to be the existence of Sekolah Berpretasi Tinggi, Sekolah Kluster, etc. Nobody has done research on this in Malaysia but I suspect their existence can have a negative effect on the ‘normal’ neighbouring schools, because all the best students leave to go there. A bit off topic la but I guess having a selective school system is a bit like inter-school streaming rather than inter-class streaming.

—Ngee Derk, on the Pengenalan (Facebook)

Come to think of it, some schools do test students or require students to send their UPSR/PMR scores before accepting them. … And does the initial average performance of all students affect whether mixed-ability classes are more effective? Just wondering if a school is at the bottom 20%, does it negate the positive effects of mixed-ability class?

—YY, on the Pengenalan (dialogpendidikan.com)


Terima kasih kerana mengikuti perbincangan bulan ini tentang pengasingkan kelas! Sertai kami bulan depan dalam perbincangan baru: “Apakah cara yang terbaik untuk menguji kemahiran pelajar sekolah rendah?” Dan sila lawati kami di Facebook. 🙂

Thank you for taking part in this month’s discussion on streaming! Join us next month, when we will discuss: “How should primary school students be tested?” And don’t forget to visit us on Facebook. 🙂

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s