Synopsis: Mata pelajaran di sekolah menengah = Subjects in secondary school

Bagaimanakah mata pelajaran sepatutnya disusun di sekolah menengah?

= How much choice should students have about their subjects in secondary school?

Sepanjang bulan Mei, kita telah menerokai persoalan ini melalui (a) perbincangan tentang cadangan perubahan di Malaysia serta amalan di negara lain dalam post Pengenalan, (b) petikan komen daripada pembaca-pembaca dalam post Apa Kata, dan (c) temu bual bersama Abdul Muiez Ruslee, seorang guru bimbingan dan kaunseling yang berpengalaman, dalam post Q&A. Minggu ini, kami menghuraikan perbincangan tentang penyusunan mata pelajaran di sekolah menengah ini.

= Throughout Mei, we have explored this question in (a) a discussion of proposed changes in Malaysia as well as practices in other countries, in our Pengenalan post, (b) a selection of comments from our readers in our Apa Kata post, and (c) an interview with Abdul Muiez Ruslee, an experienced guidance and counselling teacher, in our Q&A post. This week, we summarise this discussion about how much choice secondary school students should have about their subjects.


1. Salah satu kelebihan sistem aliran sains/sastera adalah untuk membantu pelajar dalam persediaan untuk melanjutkan pelajaran.
= The streaming system has important benefits in helping secondary school students to prepare for further studies.

Aliran berdasarkan subjek … memaksa pelajar-pelajar untuk mematuhi standard dan kehendak universiti. Sebagai contoh, pelajar aliran sains perlu ambil mata pelajaran fizik, biologi, kimia dan matematik tambahan. Dengan empat pakej ini, peluang mereka terbuka luas dan mereka boleh memohon banyak bidang pengajian di universiti.

Jika diberi pilihan, sudah pasti ramai pelajar akan menolak matematik tambahan. Cuba bayangkan, jika kelas sains tulen tidak belajar matematik. Apakah nilai sains tulen itu dalam konteks syarat pengajian di universiti? Pasti peluang untuk mereka memohon ke universiti sangat terhad.

—Abdul Muiez Ruslee, apabila ditemu bual dalam post Q&A

2. Namun, sistem aliran juga mempunyai kesan sampingan yang negatif.
= However, the streaming system can also have negative side effects.

My schooling was in national type schools in Ipoh from 1961 (Standard 1) to 1972 (Form 6, Cambridge HSC). … Perhaps, the main flaw was that, in my experience, the system tended, generally, to produce one-dimensional adults – very good at what they did, earning sizeable incomes, but not much else. They mixed mainly with like-minded people (because of grouping), read very little else besides their ‘speciality’ (because of streaming), and, sadly, sometimes smack of opinionated narrow-mindedness.

—An anonymous reader, commenting on our previous post about streaming by exam results

3. Para pelajar patut diberi kebebasan untuk memilih mata pelajaran yang diminati.
= Students should be given the freedom to study subjects that they are interested in.

Nasihat saya, halakanlah anak-anak mengikut minat dan kecenderungan mereka. Elakkan memaksa anak-anak mengikut aliran yang ibu bapa inginkan. Kerana yang ingin belajar adalah anak-anak. Mereka yang akan berhadapan dengan susahnya belajar. Bukan ibu bapa.

—Abdul Muiez Ruslee, dalam Q&A

I wish I had more choice as a student. I would have loved to learn technology in school. I really wish I had the opportunity to study Reka Bentuk Teknologi. Personally I like Physics and Biology, but not Chemistry. I think it’d be more beneficial for the student’s progress to choose subjects that they like.

—Parveenn, commenting on the Pengenalan post (on dialogpendidikan.com)

4. Sehubungan dengan itu, pelajar perlu diberi bimbingan dan sokongan dalam proses pemilihan ini.
= Students must also be given support in making these choices.

… How do we also create a safety net for students to be able to change their minds and choose to do different subjects? Do schools have the resources they need to provide the choices?

—Alya, on the Pengenalan (dialogpendidikan.com)

Di sekolah, pelajar-pelajar akan menduduki ujian psikometrik. Salah satu ujian yang diduduki ialah Inventori Minat Kerjaya. Berdasarkan keputusan inventori itu, pelajar akan dilorongkan berdasarkan minat dan kecenderungan kerjaya mereka.

—Abdul Muiez Ruslee, dalam Q&A

… How do we ensure that students make informed decisions? The subjects I ended up choosing were because of what I wanted to study at university and what would appeal to the university more.

—Nishaanth, on the Pengenalan (dialogpendidikan.com)

5. Bukan sahaja keputusan peperiksaan, tetapi juga minat dan kecenderungan yang perlu diambil kira dalam pemulihan mata pelajaran.
= When choosing subjects, don’t look only at exam results, but also at interests.

Semasa keputusan PT3 mahupun SPM diumumkan, unit bimbingan dan kaunseling akan membuka kaunter khas untuk ibu bapa dan pelajar bertanya. Antara soalan yang akan ditanya ialah, “ikut keputusan ini, kelas mana yang anak saya layak masuk?”

Seperti biasa, jawapan kami tetap sama. Selain daripada melihat keputusan PT3 ataupun SPM, kami akan memberi konsultasi berdasarkan keputusan psikometrik mereka. Dari situ kita akan dapat nilai kecenderungan dan minat mereka. Apabila mereka mengikut minat dan kemampuan, peratus untuk drop subject akan berkurangan. Malah pelajar-pelajar juga tidak membuang masa apabila terpaksa menukar aliran semasa di tingkatan 5 nanti.

—Abdul Muiez Ruslee, dalam Q&A

Another issue was the pressure brought to bear on students, mainly by parents, but also by teachers, one’s peers and one’s own self, to get into the Science stream. I don’t know how many were shoehorned into something they were good at (at least at that level) but were not entirely interested in. Personally, I was a good science student up to Form 6, and although I went on to complete a B.Sc. degree, it was very heavy going at University.

—An anonymous reader, on our previous post about streaming by exam results

6. Kita patut mempertimbangkan mata pelajaran serta cara penyusunan yang lain untuk sistem persekolahan kita.
= We should also consider other models and subjects for our school system.

We should follow the IB syllabus from primary to secondary – it’s a more structured version of Montessori education. It sounds like a contradiction but it’s more choice from young and there’s more student voice because you can choose at a young age what you want to study.

—Nicole, on the Pengenalan (dialogpendidikan.com)  

The current set of subjects you study at Form 4 and 5 are dated – e.g.: you don’t learn coding or social science type research which are helpful in university for most physical science courses. It’s more safety-netty to do semesters of stuff.

—Kelly, on the Pengenalan (dialogpendidikan.com)


Terima kasih kerana mengikuti perbincangan bulan ini tentang penyusunan mata pelajaran di sekolah menengah! Sertai kami bulan depan dalam perbincangan baru: “Ada apa dengan penggunaan Bahasa Inggeris sebagai bahasa pengantar?” Dan sila lawati kami di  Facebook. 🙂

= Thank you for taking part in this month’s discussion on secondary school subjects! Join us next month, when we will discuss: “What should we do about English-medium education?” And don’t forget to visit us on Facebook. 🙂

 

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